Category: Health (Page 1 of 3)

Congenital heart defects and intensity of oil and gas well site activities in early pregnancy

A new paper from a seasoned researcher on the impacts of fracking on health finds an increase in congenital heart defects associated with exposure to oil and wells in the first two months of pregnancy.


Lisa McKenzie wrote her first paper in 2014 and found the association but returned to the examination of the statistics and renewed scrutiny of the distance from the wells and the activity of the wells. She also looked at exposure during the first 2 months of the pregnancy.

What she found was that babies who had been most exposed to the oil and gas wells in their first 2 months of life in the womb had between a 40% and 70% increased chance of having a heart abnormality when compared to those in the study with the least exposure.

The heart develops early in pregnancy so the early exposure can cause defects during this crucial time.

Most people would not be comfortable with an industrial process capable of doing such harm to an unborn baby. It will be the same here in the UK. We know that the, much praised, offshore rigs and gas fields leak huge amounts of gas to the air and that the old unused wells leak at the level of the sea bed. We have seen how recent drilling and test fracking onshore have resulted in leaks and venting of significant amounts of ‘natural’ gas. This contains not only the climate damaging methane but also a variety of other gases that cause ill-health and can contain radioactive elements. We cannot say that regulation and engineering will protect us as we have seen that it is a real and present problem. One easy way to reduce the risk would be to site the well a long distance from homes and schools. Both UK Industry and Government resist this despite the ability to drill up to five miles sideways to access the sweet-spots and argue instead for no pre-set minimum distance from pregnant women and children.

As the Conservative Environment Network manifesto rightly says – ‘fracking is woefully unpopular’. It might have added that it is remarkable harmful to human health also.

Link to the paper

CEN manifesto see p22

For a wide ranging look at health impacts from fracking
and note also the letter from Dr Jerome Paulson with link on the opening page.

CHPUK joins United Nations women’s rights champions in calling for the UN and the U.K. government to take action to protect women in the UK from health risks associated with fracking.

Food & Water Watch’s Wenonah Hauter, Fashion Icon Vivienne Westwood, Hollywood Actress and United Nations Human Rights Champion Amber Heard Ask UN To Consider Fracking Afront To Women’s Rights In The UK

American Statistics Show Pregnant Women Living Near UK Fracking Sites Have A 40% Risk Of Premature Birth

Brussels/Washington/London/Geneva, 25 Feb 2019

A co-signed letter from a group of environmental organisations and human rights activists to The Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) recommends that the United Nations ban fracking in order to protect the health and well-being of women threatened by the dangerous drilling practice in the United Kingdom.

Representatives of the UK Government are meeting CEDAW in Geneva on Tuesday, 26th February 2019.

In the Summer of 2018, CEDAW asked the UK Government to provide information on the measures being taken to mitigate and address the health and environmental impacts of toxic substances on women and girls, in particular rural women, due to planned fracking activities.

The UK Government answered in November 2018 that it has: “a robust regulatory system which provides a comprehensive regime for exploratory activities,“ and ”tough regulations in place to ensure on site safety, prevent water contamination, and mitigate seismic activity and air pollution.”

Activists have argued that the UK government’s measures are not sufficient to protect women.

Dame Vivienne Westwood, Hollywood Actress and United Nations Human Rights Champion, Amber Heard and Wenonah Hauter, Founder and Executive Director of Food & Water Watch and Food & Water Europe have all signed a letter to the CEDAW along with environmental groups such as Food & Water Europe, Talk Fracking, #BreakFreeFromPlastic, Frack Free United; academics such as Dr. Damien Short, Co-Director of the Human Rights Consortium, London and Energy Policy Professor Peter Strachan, Aberdeen, together with the Concerned Health Professionals UK and the National Union of Students.

They also strongly disagree with the claims made by the UK Government.

The group believes women’s rights are compromised because:

– Fracking is linked to higher rates of cancer, nervous, immune and cardiovascular problems in women.

– Pregnant women who live near active fracking operations have a 40% increased risk of giving birth prematurely and 30% have obstetrician-labeled ‘high-risk pregnancies, according to a Pennsylvania study by the Concerned Heath Professionals of New York.

– Fertility and menstrual problems in women can be caused from exposure the fracking chemicals including benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX chemicals).

– Miscarriages and still births can be caused by the heavy metals found in fracking waste water.

Amber Heard said on Twitter, retweeted by Vivienne Westwood: “Only a comprehensive ban can protect women and human rights from the destructive impacts of fracking in the UK.”

Vivienne Westwood says: “We want to highlight the harm fracking causes pregnant women. Pregnant women who live near active fracking operations in Pennsylvania were at a 40 percent increased risk of giving birth prematurely and at a 30 percent increased risk for having obstetrician-labeled high-risk pregnancies. This is an example of the virulent, poisoning effect of fracking to all life and we therefore want to support Amber Heard and the group asking for CEDAW to demand that it stops.”

Wenonah Hauter, Founder and Executive Director of Food & Water Watch and Food & Water Europe. “We’ve experienced the negative impacts of fracking on rural women in the US. The UK Government still has the opportunity to prevent this and must ban fracking.“

ROI Petroleum and Other Minerals Development (Prohibition of Onshore Hydraulic Fracturing) Bill 2016


CHPI would like to extend a sincere thanks to all those Health Professionals who signed the letter to the Government advising of the risks and harms of fracking to the people of Ireland. The Letters and signatures were delivered to the Taoiseach and the Ministers of Health & Communications, Climate Action and Environment on the 18th May, a year to the day from the launch of the campaign. The Bill is now at the 4th stage in the Dail, the debate commenced last Wednesday 24th May and is due to conclude this coming Wednesday the 31st May. You can watch it live at the link  below from 10am on the 31st May 2017

Does fracking violate human rights?

Does fracking violate human rights?

Source: The Tribunal: Offering A Voice | Fracking & Human Rights | Center for Humans & Nature

Fracking, Employment and Health

The links between employment and ill health continue to be uncovered by research. However, the type of employment we seek to bring to a area is important. It is reasonable to pursue strategies that will result in realistic numbers of sustainable and safe jobs. The High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) industry and its supporters, often make promises that the industry will “…lead to the creation of hundreds of jobs and could turn the entire area into one big boom town.” The truth is very far from this, besides the fact that the jobs are dangerous, Dr Brenna O’Roarty, has prepared a comprehensive economic analysis of the proposal to drill for shale gas in Fermanagh. The executive summary of the report concludes “In short, the net economic benefits are deeply negative over a short and long term horizon”. The full report on the economic analysis is available here along with a summary report in presentation format.

Health care professionals are increasingly calling for bans or moratoria until the full range of potential health hazards from fracking are understood

Extract from the 4th Edition of the Compendium (pages 20 & 21)

In May 2015, the Medical Society of the State of New York passed a resolution recognizing the potential health impacts of natural gas infrastructure and pledging support for a governmental assessment of the health and environmental risks associated with natural gas pipelines. (See footnote 720.) The American Medical Association (AMA) adopted a similar resolution that supports legislation requiring all levels of government to seek a comprehensive Health Impact Assessment regarding the health and environmental risks associated with natural gas pipelines. (See footnote 719.) In May 2016, Physicians for Social Responsibility called for a ban on fracking, stating, “We cannot stay healthy in an unhealthy environment. Nor can we survive indefinitely on a planet growing hotter and more prone to extreme, unpredictable and destructive weather. These factors impel PSR to call for a ban on fracking and for a rapid transition to cleaner, healthier, carbon-free sources of energy.”52 In July 2016, the UK health professional organization Medact released an updated assessment of the potential health impacts of shale fracking in England, concluding that the United Kingdom should abandon its policy to encourage shale gas extraction, and urged an “indefinite moratorium” on fracking. (See footnote 878.) In October 2016, group of health care professionals in Massachusetts called for an immediate moratorium on major new natural gas infrastructure until the impact of these projects on the health of the communities affected can be adequately determined through a Comprehensive Health Impact Assessment.53 The group noted that the operation of natural gas facilities risks human exposures to toxic, cancer-causing, and radioactive pollution due to the presence of naturally co-occurring contaminants, toxic additives to the hydraulic fracturing process used to produce much of the country’s natural gas supply, and through the operation of transmission pipelines.54 Also in October, in a unanimous vote of the society’s 300-member House of Delegates, the Pennsylvania Medical Society called for a moratorium on new shale gas drilling and fracking in Pennsylvania and an initiation of a health registry in communities with pre-existing operations.55, 56 Other U.S. medical groups calling for bans or moratoria include Chesapeake PSR and the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments. Concerned Health Professionals of New York, which provided science for the successful effort to ban fracking in New York State, has inspired affiliations of like-minded public health scientists and health care providers that are now advocating for moratoria or bans on fracking in various other regions. These include Concerned Health Professionals of Maryland, Concerned Health Professionals of Ireland, and Concerned Health Professionals of Neuquén, Argentina.

52 Physicians for Social Responsibility (2016, May 13). PSR position statement calling for a ban on hydraulic fracturing. Retrieved from

53 Massachusetts Health Care Professionals Against Fracked Gas (2016, October). Call for a moratorium on natural gas projects undergoing construction or review in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved from

54 Massachusetts Health Care Professionals Against Fracked Gas. (2016, February 20). The role of comprehensive health inpact assessment in evaluating natural gas infrastructure proposals in Massachusetts. Retrieved from

55 Pennsylvania Medical Society (2016, October 23). Resolution 16-206: Pennsylvania Medical Society support for a moratorium on fracking. Retrieved from

56 Hopey, D. (2016, October 28). Doctors call for a state ban on drilling and fracking. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from


(Available from


Concerned Health Professionals of Ireland (CHPI) response to the EPA Unconventional Gas Exploration and Extraction (UGEE) Joint Research Programme Integrated Synthesis Report


The question was “Can UGEE projects/operations be carried out in the island of Ireland whilst also protecting the environment and human health?” This question has already been answered 900 times[1], by experts. The answer is no.

So why did the Irish Government spend €1 million asking an unqualified group to answer this question again? An unqualified group with a vested interest no less.

The EPA’s Unconventional Gas Exploration and Extraction (UGEE) Joint Research Programme steering group altered the meaning of this question before embarking on the project. CDM Smith defined Health and Health Impacts in such a way as to make both concepts virtually meaningless, they proceeded to neglect the investigation of key risk factors for health. Traffic accidents, occupational injuries, suicide rates, birth defects and crime levels are all shown to increase in fracked communities.  None of these was examined; neither did the UGEE JRP examine the interrelationships between these risk factors.

The key concerns of CHPI are the risks and harms to health from fracking. We know from the Concerned Health Professionals of New York (CHPNY) and the Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR)[1] that the risks include;

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water contamination
  3. Inherent engineering problems that worsen with time
  4. Radioactive releases
  5. Occupational health and safety hazards
  6. Public Health Effects – Documented indicators variously include increased rates of hospitalization, ambulance calls, emergency room visits, self-reported respiratory and skin problems, motor vehicle fatalities, trauma, drug abuse, infant mortality, congenital heart defects, and low birth weight.
  7. Noise pollution, light pollution and stress
  8. Earthquakes and seismic activity
  9. Abandoned and active oil and natural gas wells (as pathways for gas and fluid migration)
  10. Flood risks
  11. Threats to agriculture and soil quality
  12. Threats from fracking infrastructure
  13. Threats to the climate system
  14. Inaccurate jobs claims, increased crime rates, threats to property value and mortgages and local government burden.

In 2011, when fracking came to the attention of the public and the public representatives, the then Minister for Communications, Energy and Natural Resources – Pat Rabbitte responded to public concern about fracking.

“As Minister, I have to take such concerns seriously. I will see how we can get independent sources that do not have any vested interest in the outcome to examine whether there is a reason for concern in this respect.

Instead of an independent source, the steering group for this study – which included the EPA – commissioned the oil and gas industry, in the guise of CDM Smith to oversee this report, the other companies involved – AMEC Foster Wheeler and Philip Lee Solicitors – have strong connections to the oil and gas industry.

There were a number of problems with this report from the beginning. It took sustained public pressure to get the EPA to consult on the terms of reference. The consultation process was shown to be an exercise in ticking boxes – despite 1250 out of 1350 responses requesting that Public Health be put at the centre of this report – in the final terms of reference, the issue of health was only included as an ‘add-on’.

In its post-consultation terms of reference, the UGEE JRP defines human health in an extremely limited way.

“The wording “human/public health” throughout this document refers specifically and is limited to potential health impacts deriving from impacts on environmental media (e.g. exposure to chemicals, vibration, light, noise, and pollution of environmental media (i.e. soils, air & water). In addition, the wording “protecting human health” refers and is limited to preventing environmental factors from degrading human health.” (page 6)

It also limits its definition of impacts on human health as follows;

 4.2.4. Impacts on Human Health

In the EPA Acts (1992, 2003), environmental pollution is defined as: “The direct or indirect introduction to an environmental medium, as a result of human activity, of substances, heat or noise which may be harmful to human health or the quality of the environment,…”. (ibid)

The request to have a Public Health expert on the steering committee was responded to with the appointment of Andrew Sulley, an Environmental Health Officer with the HSE, whose area of expertise is listed as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Licensing. This appointment did not in any way allay the fears of the consultation participants, but it did allow the group to list the Health Service Executive as part of the steering committee.

Since 2013, when this EPA report was commissioned, there have been over 750 peer reviewed studies conducted which show that this industry has significant detrimental effects on environmental, socioeconomic, and public health.

Notwithstanding the mounting peer-reviewed evidence, the Irish government commissioned a study from a consortium with no human health experts aboard, to undertake a study. Again, this in spite of 1,250 public submissions urging the EPA to do so.

This study unsurprisingly concluded “that UGEE projects/operations comprise multiple activities over a period of up to 25 years, which have the potential to impact both human health and the environment” (page ix).

The application of the industry principle of ‘as low a risk as possible’ (ALARP), as opposed to the health sector standard – the precautionary principle, is evident in every line of this report. For example; while the writers admit that UGEE projects/operations can result in the emission of some pollutants that, if present in high enough concentrations, are associated with possible adverse health effects through direct external contact or through inhalation” (page xvi).

This is followed up with “Very few, if any, methodologically rigorous studies have examined the potential cause–effect relationships of UGEE activities and actual health outcomes in hazard analyses, in terms of exposure pathways and the health outcomes related to air emissions” (page xvi). This suggests an orientation towards the acceptance of evidence of harm and away from acceptance of evidence of risk, an ideology that is repugnant to Health Professionals.

A further, more worrying, example of this appears in the summary of the three main impacts which the report admits “cannot be discounted by regulatory control and good practice”

The report states

“Gas emissions have been cited by the public as an issue of concern from a human health viewpoint. During active operations, these can be adequately managed by mitigation measures that address the health and safety of the workforce who would have a much higher level of exposure than the general public”(page xxi).

Firstly, there is no good reason to limit the concern of this health impact to the workforce. When one considers that a worker may be exposed for 8-12 hours a day, but a resident is exposed for 24 hours per day. Most importantly, a child or an elderly person cannot be exposed to the same level as a fit working male adult. Secondly, why choose this risk only – the 4th edition of the Compendium of Risks and Harms of Fracking (2016) tells us

 “Drilling and fracking jobs are among the most dangerous jobs in the nation with a fatality rate that is five times the national average and shows no sign of abating. ….An investigation of occupational exposures found high levels of benzene in the urine of wellpad workers, especially those in close proximity to flowback fluid coming up from wells following fracturing activities. Exposure to silica dust, which is definitively linked to silicosis and lung cancer, was singled out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a particular threat to workers in fracking operations where silica sand is used.”

Some space is given to the subject of Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) in this report. HIAs are conducted alongside the developing industry; they are a tool for the mitigation of the effects of an activity or policy. A review of the evidence on the health impacts precludes the need for an HIA, on the basis that the evidence suggests that the industry should not be licenced by a State that wants to protect its citizens.

To conclude, when the 1,250 responses to the EPA consultation on the Terms of Reference of this project, requested that Public Health be put at the centre of this report, what was being asked was that the available evidence on the impacts of fracking on health would be reviewed so that the EPA could advise the Government on whether or not it was safe to introduce fracking in Ireland, thereby answering Minister Rabbitte’s original question. The investigators had a vested interest in the promotion of fracking and even they were forced to admit that there are impacts from fracking that “cannot be discounted by regulatory control and good practice”. There was no public health expert on the team and therefore the precautionary principle was not applied to the investigation. This project failed to take the Minister’s or the public’s concerns into account when they neglected to address the risks and harms of fracking. Fracking should never be allowed in Ireland.

[1] CHPNY & PSR (2016) Compendium of scientific, medical, and media findings demonstrating risks and harms of fracking (unconventional gas and oil extraction) Fourth edition. (Available from ) [Accessed 24.11.2106]



The 4th Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms Of Fracking (Unconventional Gas And Oil Extraction) by Concerned Health Professionals of NY

Source: Concerned Health Professionals of NY » Compendium of Scientific, Medical, and Media Findings Demonstrating Risks and Harms Of Fracking (Unconventional Gas And Oil Extraction)

Doctors Orders: Ban Fracking in Pennsylvania

“As physicians of Pennsylvania, we care first and foremost about the health of our community and believe that when an activity like fracking raises potential harm to human health, precautionary measures should be taken.”

Source: Doctors Orders: Ban Fracking in Pennsylvania

Shale gas development and cancer incidence in southwest Pennsylvania – Public Health

To what extent does unconventional gas development lead to an increase in cancer incidencein heavily drilled Southwest Pennsylvania?

Source: Shale gas development and cancer incidence in southwest Pennsylvania – Public Health

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